All posts by Kate

Proposal Example

This proposal is divided into the following sections: introduction, statement of the problem, purpose of study, primary research question, hypothesis, subsidiary research question, definition of terms, significance of study, limitations of study, organization of study, literature review, methodology, results, and conclusion.

The introduction situates the reader. Art therapy began in hospitals, clinics, and rehab centers during the 1950’s. The goal of this study is to see what art medium would be better suited in a public school setting. The study also asks whether students ability to pick an art medium will improve the outcome.

The study draws from experiences from art therapists, books, and articles. The following terms are defined: art therapy, art, medium, psychotherapy, expressive therapy, and the American Art Therapy Association. One article cited in the literature review discussed the benefits of an arts center for adults that were developmentally disabled. This study started based off of observations of art therapy from a social rehabilitation center for former offenders and people with developmental disabilities. The subjects were asked to draw using  basic art materials.

Conclusions include that art mediums can provide an atmosphere of improving self-esteem, confidence, social skills, and the general quality of life. Psychological imbalances can be can be determined during therapeutic art work in a school setting.No one art medium is sufficient for gaining information on the psychological standings of the patients. Patients benefit from having the freedom and trust from their therapists to pick what art medium they work with.

The schools do see art therapy as giving concrete information about their students psychological status. The school can benefit by allowing lower functioning students a way to express themselves. The social rehab center showed how the larger community benefited through public art shows. This proposal did not include a timeline or a budget

Art Therapy Creative Manuals

This article examines if it is possible to make creative manuals that reflect rather than prescribe the art therapy practice. Manuals can be both useful and restrictive. The British Association of Art Therapists (BAAT) created a protocol for establishing BAAT-approved guidelines. This article looks at a brief review of the literature as well as descriptions and guidelines to improve treatment. Topics that this article covers include: art therapy, creativity, flexibility, research, and manuals. First creativity is typically seen as something that cannot be given. A concern for art therapists is prescribing a set of firm instructions. Yet, the effectiveness of art therapy must also be demonstrated.

Randomized control trials (RCTs) is one type of research used to showcase evidence for art therapy. The development of manuals allow for easier evaluation of effectiveness of treatment. A manual should be a “clinically rich guide, not a total prescription” (2). In addition, the procedure should be outlined enough so that the results can be replicated. On the other hand, manuals have been associated with fixed sequences and techniques. In summary, “there is a need to balance flexibility with structure, therapist creativity with treatment fidelity, therapist control with general stability” (2).  The conversational model can be used in outcome-based research to demonstrate long-lasting positive effects. The Mentalization-Based Treatment for Families manual looks for feedback. The  BAAT asked special interest groups to describe guidelines for an art therapy manual. This might relate to a certain way of working, or a certain client group.

International Journal of Art Therapy, 2014 Vol. 19 No. 2 82-87

Art Therapy for Grief Trauma

This article discusses the role of art therapists at a grief camp for children after September 11, 2001. The language of imagery offers an alternative to words. Visual communication can serve as a tool to communicate complex feelings such as pain, anger, and fear. Healing occurs through the act of the creative process. This article examines experiences from three art therapists from New York University. The topics that this article covers include: art therapy, grief, terrorism, trauma, and faith healing. This article offers a case study of a program that incorporates art therapy.

This article examines children’s experience from  Camp Good Grief in Long Island. This camp is a weeklong camp for children ages four to fifteen years old who have experienced a death of a family member or relative. Art can be used as a process of destructive memories. The art therapists used art in a self directed way. Art can be used as a universal language of symbols. Art therapists should be mindful about how their experience shapes the patient’s process of art therapy.

I found this article interesting because art was used as a way to work through trauma. Loma Linda Children’s Hospital also has a grief camp. Some art therapy exercises are done at  this grief camp.

DiSunno, R., Linton, K., & Bowes, E. (2011). World trade center tragedy: Concomitant healing in traumatic grief through art therapy with children. Traumatology: An International Journal, 17(3), 47-52. doi:

Changes in Positive Quality of Life

The article  Changes is Positive Quality of Life Over the Course of Psychotherapy investigates patient’s reports of positive quality of life using various forms of psychotherapy and disorders. This study uses data from five studies that examine the change in positive quality of life and the connection to positive quality of life to changes in symptoms and the differences between disorders. The study concluded that positive quality of life became moderately better during psychotherapy and maintained during follow-up. The research examines several questions about the longitudinal change in positive quality of life including: the extent of change in quality of life during psychotherapy and follow up, the domains of quality of life that change the most during treatment,  how changes in positive quality of life differ with each type of psychiatric disorder, the relationship between symptomatic response, and change in quality of life during treatment and follow up. Topics that this article highlights includes positive quality of life, symptom reduction, cognitive therapy, and supportive-expressive therapy.  Positive quality of life or life satisfaction is the degree in which the individual evaluates his or her key needs, goals, and wishes have been fulfilled.

Aggregate data from five studies were used. All studies were completed at intake, termination, and during two post-treatment visits. The sample included 139 patients and 23 therapists. Five different assessment scales were used depending on the disorder. Each scale either relied on self-report measures or structured interviews.The data was analyzed using the Quality of Life Inventory. The study found that the areas of quality of life that most significantly changed were self-esteem, love, play, and goals. Positive quality of life increases moderately during psychotherapy and depends on disorder. I found this research clear, evidence based, and well presented because there were several figures and tables that highlighted key findings.

Crits-Christoph, P., Gibbons, M. B. C., Ring-Kurtz, S., Gallop, R., Stirman, S., Present, J., . . . Goldstein, L. (2008). Changes in positive quality of life over the course of psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 45(4), 419-430. doi:​

Art Therapy: history, benefits, and considerations

The Article Art Therapy: Enhancing Psychosocial Nursing reviews the history or art therapy and current existing art therapy programs. This article uses data that has already been gathered to address key findings of art therapy programs. The benefits of art therapy are cited. The creative process is a way to handle conflicts and increase awareness. Art can also represent the client’s progress in internal state, a graphic representation of one’s feelings can be a helpful form of communication. Art therapy can also improve the quality of life for clients and improve their insight. Art therapy programs can increase awareness and psychological growth. The process can also be used by nurses to evaluate the client’s strengths. Art therapy also emphasizes the process over the product. Partnered with other therapies, art therapy can provide emotional support to clients. Art can communicate feelings in which clients might have difficulty communicating verbally. Art therapy can also be flexible in accommodating to individual needs. Art therapy can also be used with clients families. Art therapy within a psychosocial rehab setting will emphasize social, problem solving skills, and practical living skills. Goals should be designed to meet clients needs. Sessions time frame should also be designed to fit the client’s needs. Successful art therapy programs can be managed with minimal supplies.The article concluded that art therapy for individuals with serious and persistent mental illness can assist them with goals of psychosocial nursing. This article suggests that in the future that an evaluation procedure should be developed at the start of art therapy sessions. These observation measures will allow to measure effectiveness. Overall this article provided benefits of art therapy and suggestions for art therapy programs.

Tate, Frederic B,PhD., L.P.C., & Longo, D. A., PhD. (2002). Art therapy: Enhancing psychosocial nursing. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services,40(3), 40-7. Retrieved from

The Middle Ages: Change in Women’s Personalities and Social Roles

The article, The Middle Ages: Change in Women’s Personalities and Social Roles examines women’s midlife personality development and its relationship to career and family commitments. Prior research suggests that the main focus on midlife personality development is generativity and that social roles influence its start and expression. The study examines development psychologist, Erik Erikson’s concepts of identity, generativity, and intimacy. This study is a longitudinal analysis from 1960 to 2005 of 100 women from Radcliffe College. General linear modeling and chi square analysis was used to evaluate responses from a  questionnaire and open ended questions. The questions included: if you could do anything you wished in the next ten years, what would you do? Looking back over the last nine years what do you consider major high points or the most satisfying activities? Personal documents including letters, diaries, and autobiographical writings were also examined.

When interviewees brought up  career and personal aspects, identity was coded. Identity remained high at the start of middle age and then declined by late middle age. Intimacy decreased for middle age, intimacy was coded when interviewees brought up relationships. Generativity, meaning creating a legacy and guiding the next generation increased from early to late midlife. Women committed to families with no career were more concerned with generativity at age 43 as opposed to women with career and no family.

The study concluded that career women expressed more themes of intimacy and generosity. Family women expressed higher levels of generativity compared to intimacy and identity. Generativity increases during women’s midlife from 43 to 62. Social role experiences are related to personality during this period.


Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34 (2010), 75 – 84. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Printed in the USA.

Copyright 2010 Division 35, American Psychological Association. 0361-6843/10

The Effectiveness of Art Therapy Interventions in Reducing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms in Pediatric Trauma Patients

The Effectiveness of Art Therapy Interventions in Reducing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms in Pediatric Trauma Patients, examines the efficiency of art therapy interventions. The findings are based from an outcome-based art therapy research project at a large urban hospital trauma center. Most of the patients were in in the hospital for mild to moderate injuries.  The patients in the sample were ages seven to seventeen, with the average age of 10, 70% of the patients were males.

The goal of the art therapy program, Chapman Art Therapy Treatment Intervention (CATTI), was to reduce PTSD symptoms for pediatric trauma patients at San Francisco General Hospital, determine the incidence rate of PTSD in pediatric trauma patients following an acute traumatic injury, determine the outcome of a specific art therapy treatment intervention in reducing PTSD symptoms in a population of hospitalized children,determine the outcome of the intervention at 1-week, 1-month and 6-month follow-up evaluations,examine the ability of parents or caregivers to assess the child’s level of stress, and examine the ability of nursing staff to assess the child’s level of stress. In order to measure the effectiveness of the program several indexes were evaluated including the Post Traumatic Stress Index for adolescents and parents, as well as the PTSD Scale, and a nursing checklist. The CATTI involved one-on-one kinesthetic activity at the child’s bedside, which involved creating a narrative event by drawing the traumatic event in order to express trauma and retell the story using drawing. The study does not indicate a significant difference in reduction of PTSD symptoms between the experiment and control group. The study did show some reduction in acute stress.

Linda Chapman MA, ATR-BC , Diane Morabito RN, MPH , Chris Ladakakos PhD , Herbert Schreier MD & M. Margaret Knudson MD (2001) The Effectiveness of Art Therapy Interventions in Reducing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms in Pediatric Trauma Patients, Art Therapy, 18:2, 100-104, DOI: 10.1080/07421656.2001.10129750

Community Driven Development Assessment

Published by the Asian Development Bank, the report, The KALAHI-CIDSS Project in the Philippines: Sharing Knowledge on Community Driven Development documents both the improvement of service delivery and the governance in beneficiary communities as a result of community driven development practices. The assessment was conducted in three municipalities and nine villages in these municipalities. The assessment focuses on the impact of community participation, subproject utility, sustainability, accountability and transparency, and institutional impacts. The data is derived from a survey of 180 residents in 6 villages and focus group discussions with local government officials, community volunteers, and KALAHI-CIDSS (Kapit-Bisig Laban sa Kahirapan-Comprehensive and Integrated Delivery of Social Services) staff (xii).

In terms of community participation, the assessment concluded that the municipal inter-barangay forum is an effective method for subproject selection. Women are involved in the implementation step. Despite barriers poor households face,  poorest community members are strongly involved and are very articulate during the village assemblies. Successful adjustments were made in order to meet the norms of indigenous tribes. The key social actors in the subproject selection consisted of: village captains, village officials, mayors, community residents, and community volunteers. Competition among villages has both positive and negative consequences. Competition both increases participation and frustration for subprojects that are not chosen.

The utility and sustainability of projects are beneficial in terms of transportation and access to goods and services. Reasons on how subprojects could increase household incomes for improving the water system, road, and school are provided (27). Operation and maintenance reports provide an area for improvement.

Accountability and transparency at the village level show very positive results with community residents feeling the there is relatively free corruption because complaints are resolved locally. Corruption can be reduced through the high level of community driven development.

The institutional impact at the village level uncovers that dependence on external resources will remain. Limitations include turnover of local chief executives. Major challenges include bureaucratic capture and scaling up due to longer-term funding and lack of bottom-up planning.

The report also covers the main principles and ethical framework of KALAHI-CIDSS (2) as well as the eligibility screening tools to pick municipalities for implementation of community driven development (9) and framework for the assessment (14). Overall, the report concludes that community driven development creates an effective platform for integrating and coordinating key components of an effective poverty reduction strategy (42). I found this report to be very detailed and analytical.
Gonzalez, R. (2012).The KALAHI-CIDSS Project in the Philippines: Sharing Knowledge on Community-Driven Development. Asian Development Bank.Retrieved from

Review of Community-Based and – Driven Development

This review provides insight on community-based development (CBD) and community-driven development (CDD). The review is based on economic techniques and anthropological methods.

CBD is  a term for projects that actively include beneficiaries in their design and management. CDD refers to CBD in which the communities have direct control over key project decisions. The article begins by summarizing the conceptual foundations and characteristics of projects that best thrive in CBD and CDD. CDD seeks to enhance sustainability, make development more inclusive, empower people, build social capital, and strengthen governance.

The first section covers a brief history of participatory development and development assistance. Next, participation, community, and social capital are discussed. Limitations of participation include financial losses and time commitments due to required adequate participation. In addition exposure to knowledge will not necessarily transform group attitudes. Participatory events are often very political in which outside agendas can be reflected. Furthermore, a community can be challenging to define due to complicated ethnic and religious identities.

The impact of CDD initiatives is discussed. In terms of targeting, the outside center can often identify poor communities, but does less well with identifying the poor within communities. Community involvement does not always improve public service delivery. Community-managed projects are better maintained than projects managed by the local government.

Economic and social heterogeneity and risk capture by elites are examined. Collective action can be challenging in a large homogeneous group in which the individual can make no significance in the level of provision of the good. Inequality of interest is more common in larger groups. Higher levels of village inequality reduce the probability of participation in any group.

The role of external agents and the state is addressed. Community initiatives are typically created by a central authority. Sometimes field staff can be driven by incentives which are not in line with the project needs. Accountability and state facilitation is key in participation. CBD and CDD can be challenging to scale up because creating a project requires a long-term vision and dedicated leaders. Projects can be scaled up by carefully selecting pilots in selected communities. The process should be gradual and it should be noted that initial evaluations might be unfavorable. Evaluations should be administered throughout the project.

I thought that this review did a good job at summarizing key findings and strengths and limitations from CBD and CDD projects. During my trip to the Philippines with Dr.Coles I will keep these findings in mind as well as questions including: at what point does the shift go from community based development to community driven development? I will look to see if I can find patterns that support or go against findings from this article.
Ghazala, M. and  Vijayendra,R. (2004).Community-Based and – Driven Development: A Critical Review. The World Bank Research Observer, 19, (1), 1-39. Retrieved from