Category Archives: Research I might use for my project

Research #6

This article, “Scuba diver behaviour and the management of diving impacts on coral reefs,” written by N. H. L. Baker and C. M. Roberts is interesting because they are researching how scuba divers damage reefs. I never thought the divers are deadly to the reefs, only a nuisance because their fins are always kicking up sand. I have been scuba diving since I was certified at 10 years old, and at a young age I was taught to never touch the reef, and to never kick up sand. Until researching coral, I never knew sand harmed the coral, but I digress. This article is about the results the researchers obtain when observing 353 divers in St. Lucia during the height of tourist season and the low. What they discovered is that if the divers were only briefed about not touching the coral, there was no decline in damage from kicking or touching the coral. It was only if the divers were briefed and a divermaster swiftly intervened when a diver was damaging the coral somehow. Another result, which was unsurprising was the more inexperienced the diver was, the more damage they caused to the coral. They discovered that kicking was the most deadly way to damage coral was because the fins kick up sediments, which land on the coral and then the coral has to focus on removing the sediment from themselves than growing and reproducing. It was interesting to learn how much damage divers cause to reefs, because it is smaller than other factors like climate change but left unchecked can cause major damage to specific reefs. Poor scuba diving etiquette is a localized driver to coral reef damage that is being fueled by tourism and poor education on how delicate these beautiful reefs are.

Baker, N. H. L., and Roberts, C. M. (2004). Scuba diver behaviour and the management of diving impacts on coral reefs Biological Conservation: 1-9

Research Example #5

In “The 27-year decline of coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef and its causes,” De’ath and the other researchers studied for more than two decades what is making the coral reefs at the Great Barrier Reef die quicker and quicker. This article is great source for my research project because it lists many drivers that affect coral reef mortality, and the few that are only affecting the Great Barrier Reef, especially the southern side. The drivers that these researchers believe are affecting reefs worldwide are the rising seawater temperature, pollution, ocean acidification, overfishing, destructive fishing, tourism, development along the coast, predation and storms (De’ath et al, 2012). After measuring the mean coral coverage in three areas of the Great Barrier Reef for 27 years, the researchers decided cyclones, the increase in the invasive species Crown-of-Thorns Starfish, and coral bleaching which is influenced by the rising temperature of seawater. These drivers affected the rate of regrowth of the coral. Since the temperature has risen in the water and out, tropical cyclones are more frequent and more tense, which physically damages the coral. That means the coral has less time to regrow if there are more storms. Crown-of-Thorn Starfish eat coral, and the more there are of these starfish, the more coral is being eaten. The rising water temperature cause coral to bleach because the hotter temperatures kill off the algae that gives nutrients to coral. Without the algae, the coral stops growing and reproducing. If the coral is bleached for a short period, it will be able to revive itself. Unfortunately, the bleaching periods have become longer and the coral is not able to recover from it. These three drivers affect the coral in the Great Barrier Reef, and other combinations of drivers affect other reefs. It was interesting to learn that the declining rate of coral growth was more deadly than bleaching on its own, or storms.

De’ath, G., Fabricius, K. E., Sweatman, H., and Puotinen, M. (2012). The 27 year decline of cora; cover on the Great Barrier Reef and its causes, PNAS 109(44): 17995-17999

Research Example #5

The article that I found is a primary literature source from a peer-reviewed journal called Birth. The article is called “Childbirth Education Class and Birth Plans are Associated with a Vaginal Delivery” by Yalda Afshar, Erica T. Wang, Jenny Mei, Tania F. Esakoff, Margareta D. Pisarska, and Kimberly D. Gregory. 

The general topic of the study was method of childbirth, and the question was asking if childbirth education classes and/or having a birth plan have an impact on child-delivery method. The type of data needed for this study was shallow opinions and it was gathered with brief interviews asking if the women had a childbirth delivery plan and/or if they had attended educational classes about childbirth. Then, with the consent of the women involved, the researchers recorded if the women had a vaginal delivery or caesarean. The data was analyzed with a regression analysis, chi-squares, and analyses of variance. 

The study was done at a hospital that the authors worked at during the time of the study. The women in the study were put into the following categories: women who went to childbirth education classes, women who had a childbirth plan, and women who had not attended the classes and who did not have a plan. There was also a control group for the study. 

I think that the study introduced some helpful information, and it was really interesting. However, I think it would be beneficial to do another study where the members have deeper interviews in order to understand the true impact of childbirth education classes on their decision to give birth vaginally. I guess that’s what my research is supposed to do! I definitely think that this research will be helpful in my research design process. 

Citation: Afshar, Y., Wang, E., Mei, J., Esakoff, T., Pisarska, M. and Gregory, K. (2016). Childbirth Education Class and Birth Plans Are Associated with a Vaginal Delivery. Birth, 44(1), pp.29-34.

Research Example #2

I found an article in the Journal of Advanced Nursing titled “‘Safe Passage’: Pregnant Iranian Kurdish Women’s Choice of Childbirth Method”. The article was written by Roonak Shahoei, Haliza Mohd Riji, and Zhila Abed Saeedi, who are professors of nursing, midwifery, and/or medical sciences. I was surprised yet very excited to find an article that related almost perfectly to my own research topic.

The research topic used for this study is labor choices, and the research question is  how women report emotions to impact their labor and delivery decisions. The data needed for this study was deeply held opinions and attitudes. This data was collected through interviews with Iranian Kurdish women who were a part of the study.

Participants for the study were chosen from three healthcare facilities at the Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences. The sample was of 22 women who mostly identified as housewives, and some working. The women in the sample were all in the third trimester of pregnancy, because the researchers found that the third trimester is the stage in which women begin to make decisions about how to deliver their baby. Through many interviews, the researchers found that Iranian Kurdish women do indeed base their childbirth decisions on their emotions, and specifically on the safety of their baby and themselves. The main emotions that women reported to influence their decisions were ensuring safety of their baby, fear, previous experience, emotional and social support, and religious beliefs (strong belief of Allah).

I found this study to be very interesting. I appreciate that there was a full section explaining ethical considerations when conducting the research, as well as a full disclosure of possible conflicts of interest and how the funding was provided for the study.  I think this article will help me with my research project later in the semester.

(This article is Primary Literature)

Citation and Link:

Shahoei, R., Riji, H. M. and Saeedi, Z. A. (2011), “‘Safe passage’: pregnant Iranian Kurdish women’s choice of childbirth method”. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 67: 2130–2138. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05656.x

Art Therapy Creative Manuals

This article examines if it is possible to make creative manuals that reflect rather than prescribe the art therapy practice. Manuals can be both useful and restrictive. The British Association of Art Therapists (BAAT) created a protocol for establishing BAAT-approved guidelines. This article looks at a brief review of the literature as well as descriptions and guidelines to improve treatment. Topics that this article covers include: art therapy, creativity, flexibility, research, and manuals. First creativity is typically seen as something that cannot be given. A concern for art therapists is prescribing a set of firm instructions. Yet, the effectiveness of art therapy must also be demonstrated.

Randomized control trials (RCTs) is one type of research used to showcase evidence for art therapy. The development of manuals allow for easier evaluation of effectiveness of treatment. A manual should be a “clinically rich guide, not a total prescription” (2). In addition, the procedure should be outlined enough so that the results can be replicated. On the other hand, manuals have been associated with fixed sequences and techniques. In summary, “there is a need to balance flexibility with structure, therapist creativity with treatment fidelity, therapist control with general stability” (2).  The conversational model can be used in outcome-based research to demonstrate long-lasting positive effects. The Mentalization-Based Treatment for Families manual looks for feedback. The  BAAT asked special interest groups to describe guidelines for an art therapy manual. This might relate to a certain way of working, or a certain client group.

International Journal of Art Therapy, 2014 Vol. 19 No. 2 82-87

Art Therapy for Grief Trauma

This article discusses the role of art therapists at a grief camp for children after September 11, 2001. The language of imagery offers an alternative to words. Visual communication can serve as a tool to communicate complex feelings such as pain, anger, and fear. Healing occurs through the act of the creative process. This article examines experiences from three art therapists from New York University. The topics that this article covers include: art therapy, grief, terrorism, trauma, and faith healing. This article offers a case study of a program that incorporates art therapy.

This article examines children’s experience from  Camp Good Grief in Long Island. This camp is a weeklong camp for children ages four to fifteen years old who have experienced a death of a family member or relative. Art can be used as a process of destructive memories. The art therapists used art in a self directed way. Art can be used as a universal language of symbols. Art therapists should be mindful about how their experience shapes the patient’s process of art therapy.

I found this article interesting because art was used as a way to work through trauma. Loma Linda Children’s Hospital also has a grief camp. Some art therapy exercises are done at  this grief camp.

DiSunno, R., Linton, K., & Bowes, E. (2011). World trade center tragedy: Concomitant healing in traumatic grief through art therapy with children. Traumatology: An International Journal, 17(3), 47-52. doi:

Changes in Positive Quality of Life

The article  Changes is Positive Quality of Life Over the Course of Psychotherapy investigates patient’s reports of positive quality of life using various forms of psychotherapy and disorders. This study uses data from five studies that examine the change in positive quality of life and the connection to positive quality of life to changes in symptoms and the differences between disorders. The study concluded that positive quality of life became moderately better during psychotherapy and maintained during follow-up. The research examines several questions about the longitudinal change in positive quality of life including: the extent of change in quality of life during psychotherapy and follow up, the domains of quality of life that change the most during treatment,  how changes in positive quality of life differ with each type of psychiatric disorder, the relationship between symptomatic response, and change in quality of life during treatment and follow up. Topics that this article highlights includes positive quality of life, symptom reduction, cognitive therapy, and supportive-expressive therapy.  Positive quality of life or life satisfaction is the degree in which the individual evaluates his or her key needs, goals, and wishes have been fulfilled.

Aggregate data from five studies were used. All studies were completed at intake, termination, and during two post-treatment visits. The sample included 139 patients and 23 therapists. Five different assessment scales were used depending on the disorder. Each scale either relied on self-report measures or structured interviews.The data was analyzed using the Quality of Life Inventory. The study found that the areas of quality of life that most significantly changed were self-esteem, love, play, and goals. Positive quality of life increases moderately during psychotherapy and depends on disorder. I found this research clear, evidence based, and well presented because there were several figures and tables that highlighted key findings.

Crits-Christoph, P., Gibbons, M. B. C., Ring-Kurtz, S., Gallop, R., Stirman, S., Present, J., . . . Goldstein, L. (2008). Changes in positive quality of life over the course of psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 45(4), 419-430. doi:​

Art Therapy: history, benefits, and considerations

The Article Art Therapy: Enhancing Psychosocial Nursing reviews the history or art therapy and current existing art therapy programs. This article uses data that has already been gathered to address key findings of art therapy programs. The benefits of art therapy are cited. The creative process is a way to handle conflicts and increase awareness. Art can also represent the client’s progress in internal state, a graphic representation of one’s feelings can be a helpful form of communication. Art therapy can also improve the quality of life for clients and improve their insight. Art therapy programs can increase awareness and psychological growth. The process can also be used by nurses to evaluate the client’s strengths. Art therapy also emphasizes the process over the product. Partnered with other therapies, art therapy can provide emotional support to clients. Art can communicate feelings in which clients might have difficulty communicating verbally. Art therapy can also be flexible in accommodating to individual needs. Art therapy can also be used with clients families. Art therapy within a psychosocial rehab setting will emphasize social, problem solving skills, and practical living skills. Goals should be designed to meet clients needs. Sessions time frame should also be designed to fit the client’s needs. Successful art therapy programs can be managed with minimal supplies.The article concluded that art therapy for individuals with serious and persistent mental illness can assist them with goals of psychosocial nursing. This article suggests that in the future that an evaluation procedure should be developed at the start of art therapy sessions. These observation measures will allow to measure effectiveness. Overall this article provided benefits of art therapy and suggestions for art therapy programs.

Tate, Frederic B,PhD., L.P.C., & Longo, D. A., PhD. (2002). Art therapy: Enhancing psychosocial nursing. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services,40(3), 40-7. Retrieved from

The Effectiveness of Art Therapy Interventions in Reducing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms in Pediatric Trauma Patients

The Effectiveness of Art Therapy Interventions in Reducing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms in Pediatric Trauma Patients, examines the efficiency of art therapy interventions. The findings are based from an outcome-based art therapy research project at a large urban hospital trauma center. Most of the patients were in in the hospital for mild to moderate injuries.  The patients in the sample were ages seven to seventeen, with the average age of 10, 70% of the patients were males.

The goal of the art therapy program, Chapman Art Therapy Treatment Intervention (CATTI), was to reduce PTSD symptoms for pediatric trauma patients at San Francisco General Hospital, determine the incidence rate of PTSD in pediatric trauma patients following an acute traumatic injury, determine the outcome of a specific art therapy treatment intervention in reducing PTSD symptoms in a population of hospitalized children,determine the outcome of the intervention at 1-week, 1-month and 6-month follow-up evaluations,examine the ability of parents or caregivers to assess the child’s level of stress, and examine the ability of nursing staff to assess the child’s level of stress. In order to measure the effectiveness of the program several indexes were evaluated including the Post Traumatic Stress Index for adolescents and parents, as well as the PTSD Scale, and a nursing checklist. The CATTI involved one-on-one kinesthetic activity at the child’s bedside, which involved creating a narrative event by drawing the traumatic event in order to express trauma and retell the story using drawing. The study does not indicate a significant difference in reduction of PTSD symptoms between the experiment and control group. The study did show some reduction in acute stress.

Linda Chapman MA, ATR-BC , Diane Morabito RN, MPH , Chris Ladakakos PhD , Herbert Schreier MD & M. Margaret Knudson MD (2001) The Effectiveness of Art Therapy Interventions in Reducing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms in Pediatric Trauma Patients, Art Therapy, 18:2, 100-104, DOI: 10.1080/07421656.2001.10129750

Research Example (Shaiko’s Political, Environmental, and Religious Research)

Shaiko, R. G. (1987). Religion, politics, and environmental concern: A powerful mix of passions. Social Science Quarterly (University Of Texas Press), 68(2), 244-262.


Shaiko introduces the topic of religion and the environment by talking about Lynn White (1967) and his lecture stating that  it was the Judeo-Christian belief of divine creation and man dominion-over-nature that has thrown the United States into an ecological crisis. Shaiko hopes to look into what role politics plays in this idea, since Hand and Van Liere (1984) had just done a analysis of Lynn White’s lecture if religious views had an affect on environmental views and found a certain amount of correlation.

Shaiko believes that using data from just a single survey cannot prove or disprove anything and thus validates the research being done here by saying that the relationships discovered here are still a valid indicator (and this also leaves open the door for people to do more research).

Data that was used in this study were surveys that were collected by Mitchell (1978) as these surveys were sent out to environmental groups. Shaiko asserts that there is a difference of opinion that can be seen in environmentalists versus ordinary United States citizens.

This study was analyzing for mastery-over-nature,  environmental issues [of importance], and how religious affiliations play into all of this.

The results show that the idea of a dichotomy between Judeo-Christian and otherwise does not show adequately the relationship between religious views and environmental views. Shaiko also seems to indicate that the time frame is also important in this analysis because many denominations are changing their doctrines on nature. This might suggest that perhaps the best thing to see if Lynn White was correct is to go find survey data before his time. The results did find that there was a relationship between the stewardship view of environmentalism in the Judeo-Christian belief. It also found that politics make a difference.


Also Referenced:

Hand, Carl M., and Kent D. Van Uere. 1984. “Religion, Mastery-over-Nature, and Environmental Concern,” Social forces, 63 (December):555-70.

Mitchell, Robert C. 1978. “Testing a Theory of Collective Action with Data on a Contemporary Social Movement.” Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. Data set available through the Roper Organization, Storrs, Conn., archive no. USMISCRFFENVRN78.

White, Lynn, Jr. 1967. “The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis,” Science, 155 (10