In the Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice Journal of October of 2005, J. Scott Allen Jr. and James O. Windell speak about their research through their article “An Application of Fear Appeal Messages to Enhance the Benefits of a Jail Encounter Program for Youthful Offenders”, regarding scared straight jail encounter programs effects on the delinquent youth. Allen and Windell recognize that jail encounter programs aimed at youth delinquents do not effect the recidivism rates, however they conducted psychological research which shows that the inmate-youth encounter programs incited more fear in the youth, which increases the chances of an attitude change in the youth. This research was done with one two-hour program in a county jail in a suburb of a large midwestern city. This program used fear, encouragement, and recommendations to try to help 16 and 17 year old delinquents who where court ordered to attend the program. After the 327 participants had finished the program they were given a self-report survey. This self-report survey was analyzed to find any correlation between attitude change and fear from the scared straight program. While the research didn’t look at recidivism or the youth’s attitudes on a later date, the research shows that the youth had a more negative view of jail due to the fear from the scared straight program. This is an interesting study since it is widely known among researchers that scared straight programs do not decrease recidivism.